Some weeks ago, as we were preparing to launch “My Story – My Words”, I was reviewing the 2011 Irish census, looking at the statistics on language use in Ireland. The 2011 cenus was the first one in which questions were asked about foreign languages* spoken in Irish homes. It confirmed the common sense assumption that Polish was the most common foreign language in Ireland, followed by French, Lithuanian, German, Spanish, Russian…
Then, in those same days, the results of the 2016 census came out, and for the first time we had the possibility to compare the linguistic habits of Irish residents over the years. Foreign language speakers rose by 19 per cent from 2011, reaching the number of 612,018.** That is a very remarkable number for a country of just over four and a half million people. Table after table, the census shows us patterns and trends of identity and mobility – Romanian taking Lithuanian’s place as the third most spoken foreign language in Ireland, the appearance of Portuguese in the top ten. The data is very interesting, showing that all languages apart from French (which went from 56,430 speakers to 54,948 over the last five years) have grown their numbers. It is also very interesting to note that being a foreign language speaker means less and less being born outside of Ireland: for example, while the number of Polish speakers has not risen significantly, the number of Polish speakers who were born in Ireland has almost tripled from 2011 to 2016 (10,573 vs. 27,197).
My background, as well as the background of other researchers involved in the project, is in literature. What are we doing then here, looking at numbers and percentages? The numbers inform us about a country in continuous evolution, dealing with its increasing diversity and multilingualism. Our intention is that of looking at the level of cultural and social awareness that surrounds those numbers, and the potential for cultural production that is inherent in this evolution. 612,018 people who speak different languages at home means 612,018 people who had to learn a different language at some point of their lives, who study and talk and write and, in some cases, sing and act in more than one language. No matter how different their backgrounds, bilingual speakers have one thing in common: they all have a story on how they learned to use their languages to face the world around them. By interviewing migrants and collecting individual narratives, we hope to grow stories from numbers.
It is interesting to read, for example, that each of the 612,018 foreign language speakers have a different relationship with the English language:
Of the 612,018 people who spoke another language at home 508,016 (83%) indicated they could speak English ‘well’ or ‘very well’, while 86,608 people (14.2%) indicated ‘not well’ or ‘not at all’.
The stories that are hidden in this data speak of displacement and of an everyday struggle, but also of the potential for a gap to be bridged. Every story that cannot be communicated in the language of the mainstream is potentially invisible, and yet those 86,608 story exist: in another language, in another form, potentially obscure if we take English as prerequisite for being noticed and understood. We are looking for some of those stories, and for the people who work every day to bridge gaps between communities, and work against invisibility. The story of how linguistic and communicative difficulties are overcome is a story about gaining agency, and expanding one’s voice.
Right below the surface, the Census tables also show that the complexity of the linguistic landscape in Ireland often reflects complex flows, issues and phenomena that do not originate in the island; simple indication like “French”, “Russian”, “Chinese” are hardly indicators of homogeneous groups. When it comes to French, for example, we learn that
Of those who spoke French at home 75.1 per cent were Irish nationals, only 16.2 per cent were French nationals while 3.7 per cent were of African nationality.
Any guess that we can make about these percentages involve the impact of colonialism in what is now Francophone Africa, freedom of movement in Europe and the status of French as a language of culture. Just like any guess we can make about Russian (which is being spoken daily by Irish nationals, Russian nationals, Latvian nationals, Lithuanian nationals, Estonian nationals and Ukrainian nationals) is a snapshot of the history of shifting national borders in Eastern Europe. All of these phenomena are physically translated on Irish soil, adding another layer of complexity. We believe that looking at individual stories beyond the data, we can deal with the complexity and unveil its creative potential. Complexity thinking is starting to be used as a new framework model for the study of translation and intercultural contact (a conference on the theme takes place as I write this); at the same time, super-diversity has gained importance in social sciences as a concept to describe cultural diversity that cannot simply be described under the ‘old’ notion of multiculturalism.
With this in mind, we will interview NGO workers and migrants, playwrights and artists, with the idea that one way of understanding the super-diverse is looking at individual, autobiographical narratives – how people came to speak more than one language, and what difficulties they encountered, and what they like about it. From the everyday of the streets and social media to the cultural productions of theatre and music, there are several ways to tell those stories. We cannot listen to all 612,018 stories, but each one that we collect will bring us closer to understanding multilingual Ireland.
*That is to say, languages other than English and Irish: it is always important to remember Ireland’s bilingualism, its relevance to the country’s history and to its current socio-cultural debate. Our research questionnaires include questions on how the debate on the Irish language interacts with migration and other languages, and we will write about this more in detail.
** That refers to Irish residents who stated that they speak a foreign language at home. For tables and other data: http://www.cso.ie/en/media/csoie/releasespublications/documents/population/2017/Chapter_5_Diversity.pdf